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Imaggeo on Mondays: Marble outcrops

29 Sep

This week’s Imaggeo on Mondays image was taken by Prof. Konstantinos Kourtidis, in Alykes, along the southern coast of Thassos island, where he photographed the beautifully white marbles that outcrop along the coastline. The Greek Island of Thassos is located in northeastern Greece, close to the coast of Thrace in the Aegean Sea, although geographically it belongs to the Macedonia region. There is geological evidence to suggest that at one time, the island was joined to the mainland.

Marble Outcrops. (Credit: Konstantinos Kourtidis via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Marble Outcrops. (Credit: Konstantinos Kourtidis via imaggeo.egu.eu)

“The island is formed of alternating marbles, gneisses and schists” explains Konstantinos, “in the southern Thassos area, where this image was taken, Palaeozoic (around 400 million years in age) and Mesozoic metamorphosed rocks of the Rhodopi Massif and more recent sedimentary Miocene formations (around 25 million years old) are exposed.” The sediments in this area are dominated by conglomerates, sandstones and argillaceous sands.

Banded iron formations, also known as BIFs, are repeated thin layers of iron-rich material which are alternated with shales and/or silica rich cherts. There are numerous occurrences of BIFs across Thassos island and this is interesting because BIFs are typical sediments of the Precambrian rock record and can indicate the presence of rocks which are in excess of 3 billion years old! It is unusual to find BIFs in the younger rocks record. On Thassos Island their formation is associated with changes in the depositional environment and climate.

During the formation of BIFs, volcano-sedimentary units become heavily mineralised and rich in iron and manganese oxides. In addition the island has dense accumulations of zinc and lead. As a result there is a long mining history on Thassos, dating back to 13,000 BC. The marbles seen in today’s Imaggeo on Mondays image belong to an ancient mine at sea level which was “exploited given the excellent quality of the marbles” states Konstantinos. The stone has been used in art projects, monuments and the building of numerous ancient temples.

Ancient Marble Quarry in Thassos, Eastern Macedonia, Greece. (Credit: Konstantinos Kourtidis via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Ancient marble quarry in Thassos, Eastern Macedonia, Greece. (Credit: Ioannis Daglis via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Given the islands rich archeological and geological heritage the Greek Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration (IGME) has produced a geological guide for the southern part of the island, which also includes 4 geotrails and is available online.

GeoCinema Online: Our changing Climate

3 Sep

Welcome to the third instalment of Geocinema! The focus this week is on climate change and how it impacts on local communities. Sit back, relax and make sure you’ve got a big bucket of popcorn on the go, as this post features a selection of short documentaries as well as trailers of feature length films.

Documenting the effects of the warming conditions on the surface of our planet is the primary focus of many researchers but understanding how these changes directly affect communities is just as important. The two are intrinsically linked and the films this week  highlight just to what extent this is true.

Thin Ice

In this feature film, a global community of researchers, from the University of Oxford and the Victoria University of Wellington, race to understand the science behind global warming and our planet’s changing climate.

Find detailed information of the project here.

 

High Mountain Glacial Watershed Program

How are communities in mountainous regions affected by significant watershed? In the film, scientist try to find a way to better manage these events.

 

The wisdom to Survive

What are the challenges of adapting to an ever changing climate? The film explores how we can adjusts to living in the wake of this significant challenge through talking to leaders in the realms of science, economics and spirituality.

 

Glacial Balance

Humans have depended on supplies of water since the dawn of mankind.  Ever changing weather patterns means supplies of water are shifting and communities are having to relocate to access fresh provisions. Glacial Balance takes us on a journey from Colombia to Argentina, getting to know those who are affected by melting glacial reserves in the Andes.

 

Enjoyed the series so far? There are more films you can catch up on here and here.

We will explore further facets of our ever changing planet in the next instalment of GeoCinema, stay tuned to the blog for more posts!

Credits

Thin Ice: Keith Suez, http://thiniceclimate.org/

High Mountain Glacial Watershed Program : Daniel Byers, http://skyshipfilms.com/videos

The Wisdom to Survive: Gwendolyn Alston, http://vimeo.com/77314166

Glacial Balance: Ethan Steinman, http://www.glacialbalance.com/

GeoCinema Online: The Geological Storage of CO2

27 Aug

 Welcome to week two of GeoCinema Screenings!

In a time when we can’t escape the fact that anthropogenic emissions are contributing to the warming of the Earth, we must explore all the options to reduce the impact of releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The three films this week tackle the challenge of separating CO2 from other emissions and then storing it in geological formations deep underground (Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS).

Infografics of the CO2 Storage at the pilot site in Ketzin (modified after: Martin Schmidt, www.starteins.de) Credit: http://www.co2ketzin.de/nc/en/home.html

Infografics of the CO2 Storage at the pilot site in Ketzin (modified after: Martin Schmidt, www.starteins.de) Credit: http://www.co2ketzin.de/nc/en/home.html

Geological Conditions and Capacities

Porous rocks with good permeability have, in Germany and world-wide, the highest potential for geological CO2 storage. Where do these rocks occur? And which further criteria do potential CO2 storage sites need to meet?

Ketzin Pilot Site

At the Ketzin pilot site in Brandenburg, Germany, CO2 has been injected into an underground storage formation since June, 2008. …”. The monitoring methods used at the pilot site Ketzin are among the most comprehensive in the field of CO2 storage worldwide. Of importance is the combination of different monitoring methods, each with different temporal and spatial resolutions. Which methods are used? And what has already been learned?

Scientific Drilling at the Pilot Site Ketzin

Well Ktzi203 offers, for the first time, the unique opportunity to gain samples ) from a storage reservoir that have been exposed to CO2 for more than four years. The film follows how the samples were collected and studied.

 

You can view all three films and journey through the exploration of CCS here.

Have you enjoyed the films? Why not take a look the first posts in this series: Saturn and its icy moon or some of the films in last year’s series?

Stay tuned to the next post of Geo Cinema Online for more exciting science videos!

Credits

All three films are developed as part of the Forshungsprojekt, COMPLETE, Pilotstandort Ketzin. (Source).

Imaggeo on Mondays: Soil and water conservation in the Dogon Plateau, Mali

10 Jun

Velio Coviello, a scientist from the Research Institute for Hydrogeological Protection, Italy, and one of the winners of the EGU 2014 Photo Contest, brings us this week’s Imaggeo on Mondays. He sheds light on his winning image and the problems associated with conserving soils and water in Western Africa… 

This picture was taken on Mali’s Dogon plateau during the dry season, in the course of a late sandstorm day. Between November and March, a hot, dust-laden Harmattan haze frequently persists over the whole of  Western Africa. The Harmattan is a hot, dry wind blowing from the Sahara, carrying large amounts of dust and transporting it for hundreds of kilometers. Here, we see two men drawing water from a deep and narrow well excavated by hand. This latter is a task commonly carried out by children, who climb down to dig the well bottom.

Men and children drawing water for irrigation in the Dogon plateau during a sandstorm. (Credit: Velio Coviello via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Men and children drawing water for irrigation during a sandstorm. (Credit: Velio Coviello via imaggeo.egu.eu)

Mali has a low population density, most settlements are concentrated in the southern part of the country and along the Niger River, where the climate is less harsh and water availability is higher. In the north, Mali is arid and only those who raise livestock can make a living.

One of the most important tourist attractions in Mali is the Dogon Plateau, which sits in the central part of the country, east of the Niger River. The plateau gently descends westward to the river valley and ends in abrupt cliffs on the southeast. These cliffs reach an elevation approaching 1,000 meters at Bandiagara, the main village of the Pays Dogon (Land of the Dogon). These geological, archaeological and ethnological interests, together with the striking landscape, make the Dogon Plateau one of West Africa’s most impressive sites.

Ensuring the population has safe and sustainable access to water is one of the major challenges in the Sahelian region. Facing recurring drought events and encroaching desertification, Sahelian countries are currently heavily affected by climate change. Extreme rainfall events and high rainfall intensity are the main cause of soil erosion and land degradation. Consequently, high rates of soil transport can lead to reservoir siltation and the reduction of water availability for agriculture. To cope with these issues, traditional soil and water conservation (SWC) measures like hillside terracing, permeable rock dams, stone lines, earth basins, planting pits and earth mounds have been regularly employed in the Sahelian area. The Dogon Plateau is home to a broad variety of these measures, implemented to deal with the acute shortage of soil and water. As the population urgently needs support to preserve soil fertility and reduce soil erosion, SWC measures need to be improved and adopted more widely. However, most donors fund short-term projects without considering the maintenance that is needed to ensure SWC measures remain effective long-term.

The first lesson is that there is much to learn from the traditional ways of doing things and SWC projects should always begin by looking at what the people are doing for themselves. Secondly, the international cooperation actors should set up long-term funding programs improving the participation and inclusion of local communities. The final goal would be to ensure the stakeholders are not permanently dependent on international aids.

by Velio Coviello, Research Institute for Hydrogeological Protection (IRPI) and Italian National Research Council (CNR)

Imaggeo is the EGU’s open access geosciences image repository. Photos uploaded to Imaggeo can be used by scientists, the press and the public provided the original author is credited. Photographers also retain full rights of use, as Imaggeo images are licensed and distributed by the EGU under a Creative Commons licence. You can submit your photos here.

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